J. Fish. Livest. Vet. Res. | Volume 02, Issue 02, 76-87 | https://doi.org/10.18801/jflvs.020222.09 Article type: Research article | Received: 25.03.2022; Revised: 15.05.2022; First published online: 30 May 2022
Poultry feed: a probe for antibiotics
Purba Islam 1, Subrato Kumar Biswas 1, Md. Rakib Hasan 1, Md. Imran Hossain 1, Arup Islam 2 and Shonkor Kumar Das 3 1 Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Bangladesh, 2 Department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Bangladesh 3 Department of Anatomy & Histology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Bangladesh
Abstract This study reviewed and compiled data over the last decade on the amounts of several antibiotic residues in poultry feed. The usage of antibiotics was evident in chicken growth and production. This review focused on poultry feed samples worldwide that were treated with several types of antibiotics, e.g., Aminoglycosides, β-Lactams, Lincosamides, Macrolides, Polypeptides, Quinolones, Tetracycline’s and Ionophores. They exceeded the FAO/WHO permissible limits in poultry in many cases. A considerable portion of antibiotics was released from poultry feed treated with these antibiotics. The detection methods used for these antibiotics were. TLC (thin-layer chromatography), Nouws Antibiotic Test (NAT), ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), PREMI®TEST, Mass spectrometry, Gas chromatography (GC) and high-performance liquid chromatography in conjunction with various detectors. This paper also indicated that a suitable antibiotic withdrawal time was not followed for using antibiotics. Furthermore, the consequences of these antibiotics on the environment and public health were also highlighted here. Finally, this paper proposes several recommendations in this context.
Key Words: Poultry feed, antibiotic residue, detection methods, MRL and Health hazards
MLA Islam, P. ”Poultry feed: a probe for antibiotics”. Journal of Fisheries, Livestock and Veterinary Science 02(02) (2022): 76-87.
APA Islam, P., Biswas, S. K., Hasan, M. R., Hossain, M. I., Islam, A. and Das, S. K. (2022). Poultry feed: a probe for antibiotics. Journal of Fisheries, Livestock and Veterinary Science, 02(02), 76-87.
Chicago Islam, P., Biswas, S. K., Hasan, M. R., Hossain, M. I., Islam, A. and Das, S. K. “Poultry feed: a probe for antibiotics”. Journal of Fisheries, Livestock and Veterinary Science 02(02) (2022):76-87.
Harvard Islam, P., Biswas, S. K., Hasan, M. R., Hossain, M. I., Islam, A. and Das, S. K. 2022. Poultry feed: a probe for antibiotics. Journal of Fisheries, Livestock and Veterinary Science, 02(02), pp. 76-87.
Vancouver Islam, P, Biswas, SK, Hasan, MR, Hossain, MI, Islam, A and Das, SK. Poultry feed: a probe for antibiotics. Journal of Fisheries, Livestock and Veterinary Science. 2022 May 02(02):76-87.
Aerts, M. M. L., Hogenboom, A. C. and Brinkman, U. A. T. (1995). Analytical strategies for the screening of veterinary drugs and their residues in edible products. Journal of Chromatography B: Biomedical Sciences and Applications, 667(1), 1–40. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-4347(95)00021-A
Ahmed, M. B. M., Rajapaksha, A. U., Lim, J. E., Vu, N. T., Kim, I. S., Kang, H. M., Lee, S. S. and Ok, Y. S. (2015). Distribution and accumulative pattern of tetracyclines and sulfonamides in edible vegetables of cucumber, tomato, and lettuce. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 63(2), 398–405. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf5034637
Akter, S. and Uddin, M. (2009). Bangladesh poultry industry. Journal of Business and Technology, 4(2), 97–112.
Ali, M. M. and Hossain, M. M. (2014). Challenges and Prospects of Poultry Industry in Bangladesh. European Journal of Business and Management, 6(7), 116–127.
Apata, D. F. (2009). Antibiotic Resistance in Poultry. International Journal of Poultry Science, 8(4), 404–408.
Burbee, C. R., Green, R. and Matsumoto, M. (1985). Antibiotics in Animal Feeds: Risks and Costs. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 67(5), 966–970. https://doi.org/10.2307/1241355
Cantwell, H. and O’Keeffe, M. (2006). Evaluation of the Premi® Test and comparison with the One-Plate Test for the detection of antimicrobials in kidney. Food Additives and Contaminants, 23(2), 120–125. https://doi.org/10.1080/02652030500357433
Carlet, J., Jarlier, V., Harbarth, S., Voss, A., Goossens, H. and Pittet, D. (2012). Ready for a world without antibiotics? The Pensières Antibiotic Resistance Call to Action. Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control, 1, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1186/2047-2994-1-11
Cháfer-Pericás, C., Maquieira, Á. and Puchades, R. (2010). Fast screening methods to detect antibiotic residues in food samples. TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 29(9), 1038–1049. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trac.2010.06.004
Commission, T. E. (2010). on pharmacologically active substances and their classification regarding maximum residue limits in foodstuffs of animal origin. Official Journal of the European Union, 2377.
Cronly, M., Behan, P., Foley, B., Malone, E., Earley, S., Gallagher, M., Shearan, P. and Regan, L. (2010). Development and validation of a rapid multiclass method for the confirmation of fourteen prohibited medicinal additives in pig and poultry compound feed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 53(4), 929–938. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2010.06.027
Darwish, W. S., Eldaly, E. A., El-Abbasy, M. T., Ikenaka, Y., Nakayama, S. and Ishizuka, M. (2013). Antibiotic residues in food: The African scenario. Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research, 61(SUPPL.).
De Alwis, H. and Heller, D. N. (2010). Multiclass, multiresidue method for the detection of antibiotic residues in distillers grains by liquid chromatography and ion trap tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography, 1217(18), 3076–3084. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2010.02.081
Dhama, K., Malik, Y. S., Angad, G., Veterinary, D. and Munir, M. (2016). Animal enteric viral emergencies: An overview. International Academy of Biosciences (IAB), October, 130.
Elmund, G. K., Morrison, S. M., Grant, D. W. and Nevins, M. P. (1971). Role of excreted chlortetracycline in modifying the decomposition process in feedlot waste. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 6(2), 129–132. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01540093
Er, B., Kaynak Onurdǎ, F., Demirhan, B., Özgen Özgacar, S., Bayhan Öktem, A. and Abbasoǧlu, U. (2013). Screening of quinolone antibiotic residues in chicken meat and beef sold in the markets of Ankara, Turkey. Poultry Science, 92(8), 2212–2215. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2013-03072
Evans, T. (2016). Global Poultry Trends - Developing Countries’ Main Drivers in Chicken Consumption.
FAO/WHO. (2009). Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Meeting (70th : 2008: Geneva, Switzerland). Evaluation of certain veterinary drug residues in food: seventieth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. World Health Organization, 144. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/44085/WHO_TRS_954_eng.pdf;jsessionid=61919C78A931D298ED2F7E6C2418C4F1?sequence=1
Fein, S. B., Jordan Lin, C. T. and Levy, A. S. (1995). Foodborne illness: Perceptions, experience, and preventive behaviors in the United States. Journal of Food Protection, 58(12), 1405–1411. https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-58.12.1405
Feinman, S. E. and Matheson, J. C. (1978). Draft environmental impact statement: subtherapeutic antibacterial agents in animal feeds. [Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service], Food and Drug Administration, Bureau of Veterinary Medicine.
Fox, E. M., Leonard, N. and Jordan, K. (2011). Molecular diversity of listeria monocytogenes isolated from irish dairy farms. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease, 8(5), 635–641. https://doi.org/10.1089/fpd.2010.0806
Gemperline, P. J. (1999). Computation of the range of feasible solutions in self-modeling curve resolution algorithms. Analytical Chemistry, 71(23), 5398–5404. https://doi.org/10.1021/ac990648y
Gross, J. H. . (2006). Mass spectrometry: a textbook. Springer Science & Business Media.
Guan, Y., Wang, B., Gao, Y., liu, W., Zhao, X., Huang, X. and Yu, J. (2017). Occurrence and Fate of Antibiotics in the Aqueous Environment and Their Removal by Constructed Wetlands in China: A review. Pedosphere, 27(1), 42–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1002-0160(17)60295-9
Gustafson, R. H. and Bowen, R. E. (1997). Antibiotic use in animal agriculture The variety of antibiotics, the routes of administration and. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 83, 531–541.
Hughes, P. and Heritage, J. (2002). Antibiotic Growth-Promoters in Food Animals. FAO Animal Production and Health Paper, 160.
Hussein, M. A. and Khalil, S. . (2013). Screening of Some Antibiotics and Anabolic SteroidsResidues in Broiler Fillet Marketed in El-Sharkia Governorate. Life Science Journal, 10(1), 2111–2118.
Islam, F., Hossain, M. H., Akhtar, A. and Hossain, M. S. (2014). Prospect and Challenges in Broiler Farming of Barguna District in Bangladesh. Journal of Bioscience and Agriculture Research, 2(1), 44–51. https://doi.org/10.18801/jbar.020114.18
Islam, M. K., Uddin, M. F. and Alam, M. M. (2014). Challenges and Prospects of Poultry Industry in Bangladesh. European Journal of Business and Management, 6(7), 116–127.
Jjemba, P., Weinrich, L., Cheng, W., Giraldo, E. and Lechevallier, M. W. (2010). Regrowth of Potential Opportunistic Pathogens and Algae in Reclaimed-Water Distribution Systems. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 76(13), 4169–4178. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.03147-09
Khalil, D., Becker, C. A. M. and Al, K. E. T. (2017). Monitoring the Decrease in Susceptibility to Ribosomal RNAs Targeting Antimicrobials and Its Molecular Basis. Microbial Drug Resistance, 23(6), 799–811. https://doi.org/10.1089/mdr.2016.0268
Knecht, B. G., Strasser, A., Dietrich, R., Märtlbauer, E., Niessner, R. and Weller, M. G. (2004). Automated Microarray System for the Simultaneous Detection of Antibiotics in Milk. Analytical Chemistry, 76(3), 646–654. https://doi.org/10.1021/ac035028i
Liousia, M. Gousia, P., Εconomou, V., Sakkas, H. and Papadopoulou, C. (2015). Screening for antibiotic residues in swine and poultry tissues using the STAR test. International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health, 5(2), 173–183.
Manyi-Loh, C., Mamphweli, S., Meyer, E., & Okoh, A. (2018). Antibiotic use in agriculture and its consequential resistance in environmental sources: Potential public health implications. Molecules, 23(4), 795. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23040795
Marshall, B. M. and Levy, S. B. (2011). Food animals and antimicrobials: Impacts on human health. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 24(4), 718–733. https://doi.org/10.1128/CMR.00002-11
Mehtabuddin, Mian, A. A., Ahmad, T., Nadeem, S., Tanveer, Z. I. and Arshad, J. (2012). Sulfonamide residues determination in commercial poultry meat and eggs. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 22(2), 473–478.
Mohammed, D. H. A., Ahmed, A. S., Jassim, S. G., Hashim, A. F. and Laibi, M. J. (2017). Detection of Antibiotic Residues in Food Animal Source and Feed. Iraqi J. Agric. Res., 3(Special Issue), 133–139.
Moyane, J. N., Jideani, A. I. O. and Aiyegoro, O. A. (2013). Antibiotics usage in food-producing animals in South Africa and impact on human: Antibiotic resistance. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 7(24), 2990–2997. https://doi.org/10.5897/ajmr2013.5631
Muaz, K., Riaz, M., Akhtar, S., Park, S. and Ismail, A. (2018). Antibiotic residues in chicken meat: Global prevalence, threats, and decontamination strategies: A review. Journal of Food Protection, 81(4), 619–627. https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-17-086
Mund, M. D., Khan, U. H., Tahir, U., Mustafa, B. E. and Fayyaz, A. (2017). Antimicrobial drug residues in poultry products and implications on public health: A review. International Journal of Food Properties, 20(7), 1433–1446. https://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2016.1212874
Myllyniemi, A. L., Rannikko, R., Lindfors, E., Niemi, A. and Bäckman. (2000). Microbiological and chemical detection of incurred penicillin G, oxytetracycline, enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin residues in bovine and porcine tissues. Food Additives and Contaminants, 17(12), 991–1000. https://doi.org/10.1080/02652030050207774
Olusola, A. V., Diana, B. E. and Ayoade, O. . (2012). Assessment of tetracycline, lead and cadnium in in frozen chicken meat in lagos and ibadan Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Biological Science, 15(17), 839–844.
Oluwasile, B., Agbaje, M., Ojo, O. and Dipeolu, M. (2014). Antibiotic usage pattern in selected poultry farms in Ogun state. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 12(1), 45. https://doi.org/10.4314/sokjvs.v12i1.7
Paige, J. C. (1994). Analysis of tissue residues. FDA Vet, 9(6), 4–6.
Pavlov, A., Lashev, L., Vachin, I. and Rusev, V. (2008). Residues of Antimicrobial Drugs in Chicken Meat and Offals. Trakia Journal of Sciences, 61(6), 23–25. http://www.uni-sz.bg
Pena, A., Silva, L. J. G., Pereira, A., Meisel, L. and Lino, C. M. (2010). Determination of fluoroquinolone residues in poultry muscle in Portugal. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 397(6), 2615–2621. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-010-3819-0
Phillips, I., Casewell, M., Cox, T., De Groot, B., Friis, C., Jones, R., Nightingale, C., Preston, R. and Waddell, J. (2004). Does the use of antibiotics in food animals pose a risk to human health? A critical review of published data. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 53(1), 28–52. https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkg483
Pikkemaat, M. G., Dijk, S. O. v., Schouten, J., Rapallini, M. and van Egmond, H. J. (2008). A new microbial screening method for the detection of antimicrobial residues in slaughter animals: The Nouws antibiotic test (NAT-screening). Food Control, 19(8), 781–789. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2007.08.002
Ratten, I. (2003). Developmental Toxicity Studies of the Quinolone Antibacterial Agent Irloxacin in Rats and Rabbits. Arzneimittelforschung, 53(2), 121–125.
Robert, C., Gillard, N., Brasseur, P., Ralet, N., Dubois, M. and Delahaut, P. (2015). Rapid multiresidue and multiclass screening for antibiotics and benzimidazoles in feed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Food Control, 50(January 2014), 509–515. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2014.09.040
Salama, N. A., Abou-Raya, S. H., Shalaby, A. R., Emam, W. H. and Mehaya, F. M. (2011). Incidence of tetracycline residues in chicken meat and liver retailed to consumers. Food Additives and Contaminants: Part B Surveillance, 4(2), 88–93.https://doi.org/10.1080/19393210.2011.585245
Salehzadeh, F., Salehzadeh, A., Rokni, N., Madani, R. and Golchinefar, F. (2007). Enrofloxacin residue in chicken tissues from Tehran slaughterhouses in Iran. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 6(4), 409–413. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2007.409.413
Salman, A. and State, K. (2014). Screening of Antibiotic Residues in Poultry Liver , Kidney and Muscle in Khartoum State, Sudan. Journal of Applied and Industrial Sciences, 2(3), 116–122.
Sarker, Y. A., Hasan, M. M., Paul, T. K., Rashid, S. Z., Alam, M. N. and Sikder, M.H. (2018). Screening of antibiotic residues in chicken meat in Bangladesh by thin layer chromatography. Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research, 5(2), 140–145. https://doi.org/10.5455/javar.2018.e257
Shareef, M., Jamel, Z. T. and Yonis, K. M. (2009). Detection of antibiotic residues in stored poultry products. Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 23(3), 45–49.
Sherma, J. and Fried, B. eds. (2003). Handbook of thin-layer chromatography. CRC press.
Singh, S., Shukla, S., Tandia, N., Kumar, N. and Paliwal, R. (2011). Antibiotic residues: a global challenge. Pharma Science Monitor, 2(4), 1135–1151.
Stolker, A. A. M., Zuidema, T., Nielen, M. W. F. and Nielen, M. W. F. (2007). Residue analysis of veterinary drugs and growth-promoting agents. TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 26(10), 967–979. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trac.2007.09.008
Styczynski, M. P., Moxley, J. F., Tong, L., Walther, J., Jensen, K. and Stephanopoulos, G. (2007). Systematic Identification of Conserved Metabolites in GC / MS Data for Metabolomics and Biomarker Discovery. Analytical Chemistry, 79(3), 966–973.
Sundlof, S. F., Fernandez, A. H. and Paige, J. C. (2000). Antimicrobial drug residues in food-producing animals. Antimicrobial Therapy in Veterinary Medicine, 3, 744–759.
Yeom, J. R., Yoon, S. U. and Kim, C. G. (2017). Quantification of residual antibiotics in cow manure being spread over agricultural land and assessment of their behavioral effects on antibiotic resistant bacteria. Chemosphere, 182, 771–780. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.05.084
Zhao, S., Li, X., Ra, Y., Li, C., Jiang, H., Li, J., Qu, Z., Zhang, S., He, F., Wan, Y., Feng, C., Zheng, Z. and Shen, J. (2009). Developing and optimizing an immunoaffinity cleanup technique for determination of quinolones from chicken muscle. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 57(2), 365–371. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf8030524